Within BL, mothers advertised towards youngster sex and you may pubertal condition, household money, and you may acculturation/enculturation

At each data collection timepoint (BL, FU1, and you can FU2), a couple 24-h weight loss remembers on a couple independent household visits was performed inside a month away from accelerometer research by using the Nutrients Studies System to own Look (NDSR) . Tests had been used on a single week-end time and something weekday in this an equivalent day of the trained interviewers who conducted one 24-h slimming down recall to the child in his/their preferred vocabulary (Spanish/English). New interviewers amassed losing weight investigation playing with notebooks equipped with NDSR, a diet research system readily available for this new range and analyses out-of 24-h fat loss remembers, dinner information, menus and you can treatments . Interviewers held the brand new diet recalls according to the encourages offered by brand new NDSR system . Overall energy consumption off per 24-h fat reduction keep in mind (sunday and you can weekday) try calculated using NDSR. Times intake try calculated since mediocre complete times consumption to own brand new sunday time and you may weekday.

Body mass index z-rating (BMIz)

Children’s top and lbs was in fact mentioned anyway three timepoints using fundamental actions during the content, as the people have been wearing light indoor clothing with no footwear [66, 67]. SECA mobile stadiometers and you may SECA cellular flat electronic scales with secluded monitor were utilized getting calculating top and oЕѕenite se damom SlovaДЌka you may weight. Bmi is actually changed into BMIz playing with National Youngster Health Statistics progress curves .


Pubertal condition is examined by using the 5-product Pubertal Invention Size . It measure, which have types to have boys and you may girls, asks in the bodily invention to your functions associated with bodily maturation; z-results getting boys and girls have been determined. Acculturation (degree that that abides by new dominating cultural norms) and you can enculturation (knowledge to which you to maintains a person’s very own cultural norms) was analyzed with the 6-goods English words play with and you can 6-items Spanish language fool around with subscales of your confirmed Bidimensional Acculturation Measure to possess Hispanics, correspondingly . An illustration product try “How frequently might you talk English along with your members of the family?” Activities was basically scored out of never ever (=1) to help you always (=5) and had a good reliabilities inside shot (? = 0.88–0.94).


Detailed statistics having market information, sleep course, MVPA and effort intake of the research months was in fact determined playing with IBM SPSS 24 Statistics for Windows (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp).

Cross-lagged panel design

An a priori model (Fig. 2) delineating the concurrent relationships (zero-order correlations) between sleep duration (hours), MVPA, energy intake (kcals), and BMIz, and cross-lagged effect of sleep duration, MVPA, and energy intake at BL and FU1 on BMIz at FU1 and FU2, respectively, was examined using cross-lagged panel modeling. This approach is widely used in analysis of longitudinal data to test longitudinal predictive effects between variables, such as MVPA on BMIz while accounting for auto-regressive effects of past behavior on future respective behavior, such as MVPA at BL on subsequent MVPA at FU1. Potential covariates included child gender and pubertal status, household income and enculturation as covariates of sleep duration, MVPA, energy intake and BMIz. The variable representing the missing data pattern was included as a covariate of pubertal status (? = 0.12, p = 0.03) and BMIz at BL (? = 0.16, p < 0.001).> 0.20. First, we fit the model with no constraints. Second, we fit a model with equality constraints, and finally fit a modified constrained model. We used cross-model-goodness-of-fit comparisons to guide selection of the final empirical model. The Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square test statistic assessed goodness-of-fit of the model (p > 0.05), and approximate model fit was examined using the recommendations of Hu and Bentler ; i.e., comparative fit index (CFI) ? 0.95; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) ? .06, standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) ? .08. The final model was selected based on the lowest Akaike information criterion (AIC) . Standardized beta-coefficients (?) were examined for significance, magnitude and direction of relationship. Modeling was performed using Mplus, with full information maximum likelihood (FIML) to accommodate missing values. The number of observations in the analysis was 323. The FIML feature incorporates measures that support missing completely at random (MCAR). Mediation was tested using the INDIRECT command within Mplus, which estimates indirect effects with the delta method standard errors.

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